Albert Einstein biography

Albert Einstein was a renowned theoretical physicist who is best known for developing the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (the other being quantum mechanics). Here is a brief biography of Albert Einstein:

Early Life:

  • Birth: Albert Einstein was born on March 14, 1879, in Ulm, in the Kingdom of Württemberg in the German Empire.
  • Family: His father, Hermann Einstein, was an engineer, and his mother, Pauline Koch, was a homemaker. Einstein had a younger sister, Maja.


  • Schooling: Einstein attended a Swiss school in Aarau, Switzerland, and later entered the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich in 1896.
  • Graduation: He graduated in 1900 with a teaching diploma in physics and mathematics.

Early Career:

  • Patent Office: Unable to secure a teaching position, Einstein worked at the Swiss Patent Office in Bern, where he evaluated patent applications.

Scientific Contributions:

  • Annus Mirabilis Papers (1905): In 1905, often referred to as his “miracle year,” Einstein published four groundbreaking papers in the Annalen der Physik journal. These papers laid the foundation for modern physics.
    1. Photoelectric Effect: Proposed that light can be both a particle and a wave.
    2. Brownian Motion: Explained the random motion of particles suspended in a fluid.
    3. Special Theory of Relativity: Introduced the famous equation E=mc² and redefined our understanding of space and time.
    4. Mass-Energy Equivalence: Demonstrated that mass and energy are interchangeable.
  • General Theory of Relativity (1915): Einstein published his general theory of relativity, providing a new understanding of gravity as the curvature of spacetime.
  • Nobel Prize: Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921 for his explanation of the photoelectric effect, contributing to the development of quantum theory.

Later Years:

  • Emigration: As Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany, Einstein, being of Jewish heritage, emigrated to the United States in 1933.
  • Princeton University: Einstein accepted a position at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, where he continued his scientific work until his retirement.

Personal Life:

  • Marriages: Einstein was married twice. His first wife was Mileva Marić, and they had two sons. After their divorce, he married his cousin, Elsa Löwenthal.
  • Humanitarian and Political Activism: Einstein was an outspoken advocate for civil rights, pacifism, and Zionism. He was also an advocate against the development of nuclear weapons.


  • Passing: Albert Einstein passed away on April 18, 1955, in Princeton, New Jersey, USA.


Add a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *